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Turkey’s Russian air defence programs and U.S. response

Oct 1(Reuters) – Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan this week flagged potential additional cooperation with Russia on defence trade initiatives together with fighter jets and submarines even because the United States warned it might reply with extra sanctions. learn extra

Turkey acquired the primary deliveries of the S-400 surface-to-air programs in July 2019, prompting Washington to start eradicating the NATO ally from its F-35 stealth fighter programme over safety considerations.

The following timeline presents the principle developments within the programme and Ankara’s relations with the United States.

Dec. 29, 2017 – Turkey and Russia signal an accord on deliveries of Russian S-400 surface-to-air missile batteries, reportedly price round $2.5 billion.

June 19, 2018 – A U.S. Senate committee passes a spending bill that features a provision to dam Turkey’s buy of Lockheed Martin F-35 fighter jets until it drops the plan to purchase the S-400s.

March 28, 2019 – U.S. Senators introduce a bipartisan bill to ban the switch of F-35s to Turkey until the U.S. administration certifies that Ankara won’t take supply of the S-400s.

June 7, 2019 – The United States decides to cease accepting any extra Turkish pilots to coach on F-35 fighter jets.

July 17, 2019 – The United States says it was removing Turkey from the F-35 programme; Ellen Lord, Undersecretary of Defense for acquisition and sustainment, says Turkey would now not obtain greater than $9 billion in projected work.

July 25, 2019 – Russia completes the primary cargo of its S-400 programs to Turkey, based on Turkish navy officers.

Sept. 15, 2019 – Turkey’s defence ministry confirms supply of a second battery of S-400s.

Nov. 12, 2020 – Turkey’s Defence Minister Hulusi Akar says Turkey is able to focus on U.S. considerations in regards to the technical compatibility of Russian S-400 defence programs and U.S.-made F-35 jets, renewing Ankara’s name for a joint working group with Washington on the difficulty.

March 24, 2021 – U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken, in a gathering with Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu, urges Ankara to drop the S-400 system. In the identical assembly, Cavusoglu advised his U.S. counterpart that its buy was “a done deal.” learn extra

July 21, 2021 – U.S. President Joe Biden is dedicated to sustaining sanctions on Turkey underneath the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) for purchasing Russian missile defences and would impose additional sanctions if Ankara purchased additional main arms programs from Moscow, based on a senior U.S. diplomat. learn extra

Aug. 23, 2021 – The Interfax new company stories the top of Russia’s arms exporter as saying Russia and Turkey had been near signing a brand new contract to provide Ankara with extra S-400s within the close to future. learn extra

Sept. 26, 2021 – Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan says Turkey nonetheless intends to purchase a second batch of missile defence programs from Russia. learn extra

Sept. 30, 2021 – Turkey is contemplating extra joint defence trade programmes with Russia together with fighter jets and submarines, President Erdogan says after talks with President Vladimir Putin. Erdogan didn’t point out additional S-400 purchases or U.S. sanctions, however stated “Turkey would not back down.” learn extra

Compiled by Oben Mumcuoglu and Berna Syuleymanoglu in Gdansk; Editing by Tomasz Janowski and Daren Butler

A view shows a new S-400