London’s finance district, steeped in slavery, confronts its previous


LONDON, Oct 6 (Reuters) – British ships ferried over 3 million enslaved African individuals throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Lloyd’s of London insured lots of these vessels, the individuals chained beneath deck generally categorized as “perishable goods”, alongside cattle, by the market’s underwriters.

Lloyd’s involvement within the trans-Atlantic slave commerce just isn’t included out there’s everlasting exhibition at its modernistic City tower however that’s set to alter.

“The legacy of slavery is racism. You can’t do what you have to do to make slavery work unless you constitute the enslaved people as less than human,” mentioned Nick Draper, a former JPMorgan banker who was founding director of the Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slavery (LBS) at University College London

“We did it on the basis of ethnicity, race and skin colour. It’s embedded in British and European culture – that’s what we are working through now.”

Along with different monetary establishments in London, the insurance coverage market has been pressured to confront its racist previous following final yr’s Black Lives Matter protests.

Lloyd’s and the Bank of England have every employed a historian to delve into their roles within the slave commerce and are planning on publicizing the ends in the following yr.

The exhibitions will shine a lightweight on the fortunes coined off a barbarous system and the function performed by among the City’s most venerable grandees in protecting it afloat, together with individuals similar to John Julius Angerstein, referred to as ‘the father of Lloyd’s’.

The 18th-century industry titan was chairman of the market when a large chunk of its business was based on the slave trade and Lloyd’s says there is evidence to suggest he was a trustee of estates in the Caribbean that held enslaved people.

His portrait hangs in the market’s HQ.

Chairman Bruce Carnegie-Brown desires Lloyd’s to be upfront about its previous however he doesn’t need work eliminated.

“I’d rather tell the story than cancel them,” he instructed Reuters.

The African-Caribbean Insurance Network (ACIN), set as much as increase Black and minority ethnic illustration within the London insurance coverage market, disagrees. It mentioned companies ought to overview “organizational artefacts, and remove any with racist connotations” in accordance with suggestions submitted to the London market final yr.

ACIN co-founder Junior Garba, a Lloyd’s underwriter, mentioned it was higher to put artefacts in museums.

“We can’t ignore the history. We can explain it, we can educate.”

Green Park Business Leaders Index 2021 Graphic 1
Green Park Business Leaders Index 2021 Graphic 1


The roots of the slave commerce are deep and broad in London’s famed establishments.

Angerstein’s artwork assortment, together with works by Rubens, Raphael and Rembrandt, shaped the nucleus of London’s National Gallery when it was based.

The gallery makes no point out of Angerstein’s hyperlinks to the slave commerce on its web site. It does say he belonged to the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor, an organisation with abolitionist pursuits.

In an electronic mail to Reuters, The National Gallery mentioned it was working with LBS to make clear the hyperlinks between slave-ownership, artwork assortment and philanthropy in Britain and can publish preliminary outcomes later this yr. Angerstein shall be included in that examine.

According to analysis by Draper, Angerstein was “a beneficiary of slavery in the marine insurance business on which he founded his career and fortune”. There is not any proof that he was a slave dealer.

A call on what to do with the portraits of Angerstein and different outstanding Lloyd’s names shall be made after Victoria Lane, beforehand archivist at Shakespeare’s Globe theatre, completes her overview.

Lane, who started work at Lloyd’s final month, is trawling via artwork, swords, silverware and paperwork held by the market. Lloyd’s declined to make her out there for interview.

The Bank of England eliminated 10 portraits and busts of former governors and administrators with hyperlinks to the slave commerce earlier this yr and plans to clarify their function in an exhibition at its museum subsequent yr, a spokesperson mentioned.

Statues of two politicians with hyperlinks to the slave commerce look set to remain at Guildhall, the ceremonial centre of the City of London, after an earlier resolution to take away them.

The monetary district’s municipal authority will this week talk about a report that recommends retaining monuments of twice Lord Mayor William Beckford and service provider John Cass, each of whom made fortunes off slavery, with “explanatory plaques or notices” positioned subsequent to them. learn extra

The report says over 2,000 responses to 2 consultations confirmed “low demand” for eradicating the statues.


Europe’s sugar colonies within the West Indies have been constructed on slave labour from Africa throughout the seventeenth and 18th centuries and the City of London was the monetary centre of the trans-Atlantic commerce in people.

Historians estimate between one and two-thirds of the British marine insurance coverage market was based mostly on the slave commerce within the 18th century, specifically, insuring the ships returning to Europe with produce from the plantations.

Lloyd’s was certainly one of three main British 18th century marine insurers. The different two, Royal Exchange and London Assurance, have been later folded into insurers AXA (AXAF.PA) and RSA.

AXA apologised for its affiliation with the slave commerce and mentioned it was working to make its office extra inclusive.

RSA mentioned there have been facets of its historical past which “don’t reflect the values we hold today”, including that the agency was dedicated to tackling injustice.

The legacy of the slavery trade persists, consultants say.

Fewer than 1 in 10 administration roles in monetary companies are held by Black, Asian or different ethnic minority individuals, in accordance with a dialogue paper printed by UK regulators in July.

The Bank of England has set itself a goal of 18-20% of senior managers to be Black, Asian and minority ethnic in February 2028, in contrast with 8.2% in November 2020.

The lack of progress in diversifying the City is placing strain on the Financial Conduct Authority to behave and it mentioned in July that senior supervisor pay might have to be linked to enhancements in hiring.

ACIN recommends insurance coverage companies set targets for ethnic minority illustration at senior ranges.

Only 2% of the practically 50,000 robust Lloyd’s of London insurance coverage market is Black. It has an “ambition” for a 3rd of all new hires to return from ethnic minorities.

“Legacy is part of the response,” mentioned Oliver Kent-Braham, co-founder of digital insurer Marshmallow.

“What’s important is that companies make sure they have really unbiased interview processes that are not heavily weighted towards junior levels … making sure that companies are hiring from everywhere.”

Green Park Business Leaders Index 2021 Graphic 2
Green Park Business Leaders Index 2021 Graphic 2
Additional reporting by Bart Meijer in Amsterdam and Koh Gui Qing in New York; Editing by Carmel Crimmins

Painting of John Julius Angerstein by Sir Thomas Lawrence is seen in this undated handout photo obtained by Reuters October 5, 2021. The National Gallery, London/Handout via REUTERS

A person walks past the Bank of England in the City of London financial district, in London, Britain, June 11, 2021. REUTERS/Henry Nicholls/File Photo

A man works at a desk in the Lloyd's of London building in the City of London financial district in London, Britain, April 16, 2019.  REUTERS/Hannah McKay//File Photo

Green Park Business Leaders Index 2021 Graphic 1

Green Park Business Leaders Index 2021 Graphic 2